Problems of Public Administration in Developed Countries – Essay
1. Administration of growing population and consequent conditions of unemployment, now even in advanced countries.
2. Administration of social conflict generated due so propagation of myths like racial superiority, colour distinctions and absolute nationalism resulting in communal riots, strikes and threats of peace, law and order, arson, deaths and destruction.
3. Administration of national resources and introduction of new techniques of “budgeting or making simple Legislative control over national finances and also make profitable use of scarce fiscal resources.
4. Administration of man power resources and effective use of those to the utmost advantage in the development of the country.
5. Administration of Urban scene with spiraling problems of colonies, ghettoes and sprawls etc.
6. Administration of environment pollution viz., air pollution, water pollution because of industrialization and urbanization.
7. Administration of welfare of women, old people, destitute handicaps and the invalids.
8. Administration of national security, safe guarding the territorial integrity and physical safety of the citizens by maintaining an efficient alert and upto date defence services.
9. Administration of industrial units by exercising indirect controls in order to keep the production units efficient and responsive to the needs of the citizens.
10. Administering a highly sensitive instrument of governance i.e., the civil Service Organization highly dynamic and conscious about its tasks and responsibilities. A proper administration of an elite-bureaucracy is the first and foremost function of the United States and United Kingdom.
These two highly advanced states are performing the respective role satisfactorily. Public administration in both these countries has attuned itself to the challenging tasks imposed by the “growth”, development and technology.
A highly advanced technological revolution has simplified work procedures in governments, but created numerous other problems. The administration of technologically advancement and its aftermath, is thus, new area of activity which makes role of public bureaucrats, still more complex and challenging
The role of public administration in the communist’s countries is basically different from the developed western democracies. To objectively analyse the functions, role and place of bureaucracy in the prominent communist countries, a complete reorientation of expectations is necessary on the part of readers, who are comparatively more familiar with the developed constitutional democracies Totalitarianism, which is the basis of communist rule, has great influence of their bureaucracies and on the nature of functions which they perform.
The predominant, communist bureaucracies were that of USSR, China, Poland and Czechoslovakia. Due to the iron curtain behind which these countries function, excluded from the rest of the world, meagre and inadequate details are available about the role and functions of bureaucracy.
The communist countries in spite of having certain representative political institutions are basically one party dictatorship. Russia, for example, the most important and powerful communist country in the world, had government, with dominance of the ruling communist party, since the 1917 Revolution.
The communist countries make extensive use of their administrative set up to preserve and maintain the political control over the masses a Although the State and the administration are intimately involved in carrying out of the public policies, yet the two have not been amalgamated into one completely.
But these in no way mean that the administrative system is independent and functions without any control. In fact, the various hierarchical level of the communist party keeps a regular check on the working of administration, at its various hierarchical points.
But every level has made a major impact on these tasks and on the process of taking decisions. Setting a new airport, buying military supplies striking the right balance between coal gas oil and nuclear powered electricity in a new energy policy all these problems compel civil servants to use new techniques of analysis, management and coordination which are beyond those not specially trained in them.
“Bureaucracy does not concern with all segments of society and is often confronted with pressures and counter pressures of differing priorities, conflicting tactics, and a conglomeration of demands.
It has to function in a social milieu and is acted upon by other social institution. The bureaucracy has to remove the public feeling of distrust and initiate a process of political socialisation and facilitate planning of strategies and identification of the people with the goals.
In the end we can say that any country of the world, whether communist or noncommunist, must have a public service as a means and criteria of a professional administrative system to efficiently carrying the governmental responsibilities in modern times. Large scale organisation well developed system of functional specialisation.
Hierarchical pattern and specific qualifications for office are some of the basic factors, which ultimately affect the role and effectiveness of public administration. But, in overall perspective, besides these administrative requirements, the individual political system the political control interference etc., of the country specifies the detailed functions and role which administration should perform.