History and Civics Question Bank for Class IX – “Reformation”
Q1. Explain the meaning of the term Reformation.
Ans: Reformation, literally, means the act of improving or changing somebody or something. In European history, Reformation refers to a movement against the evil practices within the Catholic Church in the sixteenth century.
Q2. Mention two political causes of the Reformation.
Ans: The resentment of the rulers to Pope’s interference in administration and the growth of nationalistic feelings among the nation-states are the two political causes of the Reformation.
Q3. Mention two evils of the Catholic Church.
Ans: The two evils of the Catholic Church were:
i. Many priests received their appointments through corrupt practices. They could buy offices. This practice was called Simony
ii. The Pope sold pardon certificates called ‘Indulgences’. Sinners could purchase pardon in this life and after, by paying a stipulated sum of money. The fact that forgiveness could be purchased as a commodity, became a major issue of protest
Q4. Name two taxes levied by the Catholic Church.
Ans: People paid a tax called ‘tithe’, which was one-tenth of the income of the family to the Church. Another tax collected by the Church was called ‘Peter’s Pence’.
Q5. Who was Martin Luther? Where did he come from?
Ans: Martin Luther was a German monk of the order of Saint Augustine. He came from Germany.
Q6. Mention two works of Martin Luther.
Ans: Martin Luther’s two works were ‘Ninety Five Theses’ and ‘The Babylonian Captivity of the Church’.
Q7. Mention two of Luther’s doctrines.
Ans: Luther’s two doctrines were:
i. Every man was his own priest and his own monk. He refused to accept that priests were the representatives of God on Earth. The supreme authority was vested only with the Bible
ii. Church had no authority over the State
Q9. Mention the most significant contribution made by Zwingli to Reformation.
Ans: Zwingli introduced the Protestant movement in Switzerland.
Q10. Mention two doctrines of Calvin.
Ans: Calvin’s two doctrines were:
i. Calvin believed in extreme austerity and hard work and that man should follow a simple religion and lead a pure life. He banned entertainment, music, dancing and drinking wine and believed that a man could be liberated from his sins only by the grace of God
ii. He also believed in the ‘Doctrine of Predestination’ which meant that everything was decided and ordained from before
Q11. Mention two criticisms against the doctrines of Calvin.
Ans: Two criticisms against Calvin’s doctrines were:
i. Calvin insisted on a very severe code of conduct from his followers
ii. He punished those who were free thinkers
Q12. How were the Protestants known as in France and Scotland?
Ans: The Protestants were known as Heugenots in France and Presbyterians in Scotland.
Q13. What was the Counter Reformation?
Ans: The popularity of the Protestant Movement alarmed the Roman Catholic Church and it launched a movement to reform the Church. At the same time it undermined the Protestant Movement. This was called the Counter Reformation.
Q14. What happened at the Council of Trent?
Ans: The Council of Trent was summoned in Italy, between 1545 and 1563, by Pope Paul III. It was summoned to introduce reforms in the Catholic Church without changing its basic doctrines. It defined the doctrines of the Church in the light of the changing times. Anti-Catholic books were banned. The Pope was declared as the head of the Catholic Church and the final spokesman of the Christian doctrines. The Church through the Inquisition punished all heretics.
Q15. Mention two contributions of the Counter Reformation.
Ans: It prohibited corrupt practices like the sale of indulgences and violation of celibacy.
Q16. Enumerate two results of the Reformation.
Ans: Reformation resulted in:
i. The hatred between the Catholics and the Protestants that eventually led to wars. These wars caused widespread destruction in terms of economy and polity
ii. There was a rise of nation-states
Q17. Name the countries that emerged as strong nation-states.
Ans: France, Spain and England emerged as strong Nation-States.
Q18. Who was the king in England who established his supremacy over the Church?
Ans: Henry VIII of England established his supremacy by declaring himself the head of the Church.