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History and Civics Question Bank for Class IX – “Age of the Mughals”

Q1. Which was the last significant foreign dynasty to rule over India prior to Babur’s invasion?

Arts: The Lodi dynasty was the last significant foreign dynasty to rule over India prior to Babur’s invasion.

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Q2. Who invited Babur to invade India and why?

Ans: Ibrahim Lodi’s growing ambitions posed a threat to the power of the nobles. Hence, Daulat Khan, one of the nobles of Ibrahim Lodi, invited Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur, the ruler of Kabul to invade India.

Q3. Who was Babur?

Ans: Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur was born in Farghana, in Central Asia, in AD 1483. He was the descendant of Timur from his father’s side and Chenghiz Khan from his mother’s side. He was the founder of the Mughal dynasty in India.

Q4. Discuss in brief the first battle of Panipat.

Ans: Babur met Ibrahim Lodi at the Battle of Panipat in April 1526. Ibrahim Lodi had an army of 100,000 men and 1,000 elephants in comparison to Babur’s 12,000 men. But Babur had excellent cavalry and fine artillery. For the first time in the Indian history, guns were used. Ibrahim Lodi was completely defeated by Babur.

Q5. Why is the first battle of Panipat important?

Ans: The first battle of Panipat is one of the most decisive battles of Panipat because it marked the beginning of the Mughal rule in India. This battle brought under Babur’s control, the entire area upto Delhi and Agra and he was proclaimed the Emperor of Delhi.

Q6. Name some of the literary sources that help us to know about the Mughal period.

Ans: Some of the literary sources that help us to know about the Mughal period are— Tuzuk-i-Baburi, an autobiography written by Babur in his mother tongue, Turki, Humayun’s personal attendant, Jauhar, wrote an interesting work called ‘Tazkirat- ul-Wakiat’, Abul Fazl’s ‘Ain-i-Akbari and ‘Akbarnama’ give a vivid account of Akbar’s reign, ‘Alamgirnama’ covers the reign of Shahjahan and the early years of the reign of Aurangazeb.

Q7. When and between whom was the battle of Khanua fought? Why is it important?

Ans: The battle of Khanua was fought in AD 1527 between Rana Sangha of Mewar and Babur.

Q8. What is the memoir written by Babur called?

Ans: Tuzuk-i-Baburi, an autobiography written by Babur in his mother tongue, Turki.

Q9. What is the historic importance of the battle of Chausa?

Ans: The battle of Chausa was a decisive battle fought in AD 1539, between the Mughals under Humayun and the Afghans under Sher Shah. Sher Shah’s Afghan army swooped down upon the Mughal camp, taking it completely by surprise and completely defeated the Mughal force. Sher Shah then declared himself an independent king of Banaras and adopted the title of Sher Shah Suri.

Q10. When and between whom was the second battle of Panipat fought?

Ans: The second battle of Panipat was fought in AD 1556 between the Mughals under Akbar and the Afghans under Hemu. Hemu was killed and this battle re-established the Mughal Empire in India.

Q11. When was the battle of Haldighati fought?

Ans: The battle of Haldighati was fought in AD 1576.

Q12. Why and where was the Buland Darwaza erected?

Ans: The Buland Darwaza is erected at Sikri. This magnificent gateway was built by Akbar, to commemorate his great victory over Gujarat.

Q13. What epithet did Prince Salim adopt as soon as he became the Emperor?

Ans: On ascending the throne, Prince Salim assumed the title of Jahangir which means ‘World Conqueror’.

Q14. What method did Jahangir devise for the people to communicate their sufferings to the king?

Ans: Jahangir introduced the concept of the golden chain with sixty bells which he got hung in his palace so that the common people could pull it and draw his attention to their sufferings.

Q15. How did the rebellion of Prince Khusrau embitter Mughal-Sikh rela­tionship?

Ans: Prince Khusrau, the eldest son of Jahangir revolted against his father because he wanted to replace Jahangir and become the ruler of India. He was supported by the Sikh Guru Arjun Dev. Jahangir captured and killed Khusrau. Guru Arjun Dev was summoned to Delhi where he was tortured to death by Jahangir. The execution of Arjun Dev strained the relationship between the Sikhs and the Mughals.

Q16. How did Jahangir’s reign inaugurate a new era of Mughal-Mewar rela­tionship?

Ans: Akbar could not bring the whole of Mewar under Mughal domination and Jahangir’s various expeditions also proved unsuccessful. Finally he himself went to Mewar. Villages and towns were ransacked and new military posts were established, Chittor was blockaded and then finally, Amar Singh decided to make peace. This inaugurated a new phase in Mughal-Mewar relations.

Q17. Who was Nur Jahan?

Ans: Nur Jahan was the wife of Jahangir. Her name before marriage was Mehrunnissa and she was the widow of Sher Afghan. Nur Jahan was a beautiful and talented woman with high ambition. She took an active interest in the running of the administration. Nur Jahan influenced and guided contemporary politics.

Q18. Who was Thomas Roe? Why did he visit the court of Jahangir?

Ans: Sir Thomas Roe was the ambassador of King James I of England. He visited Jahangir’s court in AD 1615 with a request to grant the East India Company a permission to establish factories in Surat and Broach. Jahangir granted the permission.

Q19. What epithet did Prince Khurram adopt as a king?

Ans: Prince Khurram, on ascending the throne in AD 1627, assumed the title of Shahjahan or ‘Conqueror of the World’.

Q20. In whose memory was Taj Mahal constructed?

Ans: Taj Mahal was constructed by Shahjahan, in the fond memory of his wife, Mumtaz Mahal.

Q21. Describe the conquest of Golkunda under Shahjahan.

Ans: The ruler of Golkunda, being a Shia by faith, was more loyal to the Shah of Iran than to Shahjahan. Being a staunch Sunni, Shahjahan resented the attitude of the ruler of Golkunda. He asked the ruler of Golkunda to abolish the Shia practices. The king of Golkunda did not want a war so as a mark of respect to Shahjahan agreed to pay him an annual tribute.

However when Shahjahan’s son Aurangazeb became the viceroy of Deccan, he besieged Golkunda because the ruler of Golkunda had confiscated the property of Aurangazeb’s trusted minister, Jumla Khan. Aurangazeb was about to destroy the state when Shahjahan prevented him. As a result, in AD 1656, a treaty was signed with the ruler of Golkunda by which the latter had to pay a huge war indemnity. By this treaty, the ruler of Golkunda became a vassal of the Mughal emperor.

Q22. Who carried away the Peacock Throne of Shahjahan?

Ans: The Peacock Throne of Shahjahan was made of pure gold and studded with precious stones and gems. An invader. Nadir Shah carried it away, to Iran, in 1739.

Q23. Who was the last great Mughal ruler?

Ans: Alamgir Aurangazeb, the son of Jahangir, was the last great Mughal ruler. He ascended the throne in AD 1658 and ruled upto AD 1707.

Q24. Why did the Jats revolt?

Ans: Aurangazeb had imposed pilgrimage tax on the Hindus. He even imposed the Jaziya (religious tax) on the non-Muslims. This alienated the Hindus. As a mark of protest, the Jats, under their leader Gokul, raised the banner of revolt in Mathura.

Q25. What was the outcome of the Jat revolt?

Ans: The Jats under their leader Gokul revolted against the imposition of pilgrimage tax and Jaziya (religious tax) by Aurangazeb. The Mughal army could quell the revolt but could not subdue the Jats completely. By AD 1691, Rajaram and his successor Churaman were forced to surrender before the Mughals. But unrest among the Jats continued.

Q26. Discuss the revolt of the Satnamis.

Ans: The Satnamis were a small group of peasants who lived near Delhi in the districts of Narnaul and Mewat. In 1672, they rose in self-defence when a Mughal tax collector insulted a Satnami peasant and killed him. The Satnamis got some success but their success was short-lived as they were suppressed heavily by the Mughal forces.

Q27. Did Mughal-Sikh relation improve under Aurangazeb? If not, why?

Ans: Mughal – Sikh relations had turned hostile since the days of Jahangir. The reign of Aurangazeb witnessed a further deterioration of Mughal-Sikh relations. When the ninth guru of the Sikhs, Guru Tegh Bahadur refused to embrace Islam, he was murdered by Aurangazeb, in AD 1675. This caused widespread resentment among the Sikhs. Guru Tegh Bahadur’s son, Guru Govind Singh turned the Sikhs into a military community.

Q28. Did Aurangazeb reverse the Mughal policy of alliance with the Rajputs? What was its result?

Ans: Aurangazeb committed the greatest mistake by putting an end to the policy of alliance with the Rajputs, which was followed by Akbar, Jahangir and Shahjahan. Raja Jaswant Singh of Marwar (Jodhpur) was high in Shajahan’s favour. But in AD 1678, when Raja Jaswant Singh died, Aurangazeb wanted to annex his kingdom and sent his officers to take possession of his kingdom. Aurangazeb detained Jaswant Singh’s posthumous son, Ajit Singh and put an incompetent relative of Jaswant Singh on the throne of Marwar. But Rajput nobles led by Durgadas rescued Ajit Singh.

An infuriated Aurangazeb declared war against Marwar and marched to Ajmer. He also captured Jodhpur. Durgadas fled with Ajit Singh to Mewar. Then Mewar entered the war. It supported the claim of Ajit Singh. In November 1679, Aurangazeb attacked Mewar. The war continued till 1681 and the state of Mewar was ruined. Aurangazeb made peace with Mewar in 1681. But Marwar continued to fight against the Mughals for the next thirty years. Thus, Aurangazeb lost the loyalty and support of the Rajputs forever.

Q29. Under whom did the Marathas pose a threat to the Mughals?

Ans: The Marathas, under their leader Shivaji, posed a threat to the Mughals.

Q30. Between whom was the treaty of Purandhar signed?

Ans: The treaty of Purandhar was signed between Raja Jai Singh and Shivaji in AD 1665.

Q31. Who succeeded Aurangazeb?

Ans: Aurangazeb was succeeded by his eldest son, Prince Muazzam in AD 1707. He ascended the throne under the name of Bahadur Shah.

Q32. Who killed Jahandar Shah?

Ans: Jahandar Shah was killed by his brother, Farrukhsiyar, in AD 1713.

Q33. Who were the ‘king makers’?

Ans: The Sayyid brothers, Abdullah Khan and Hussain Ali Khan Baraha, were the ‘king makers’.

Q34. Who was the last Mughal emperor?

Ans: Bahadur Shah II (1837-57) was the last Mughal ruler.

Q35. Give two causes of the decline for the Mughals.

Ans: The two causes of the decline for the Mughal decline were:

i. Absence of fixed law of succession,

ii. Responsibility of Aurangazeb – his autocratic rule, faulty policy against the Sikhs, Marathas and the Deccan along with the imposition of jaziya on the non-Muslims of India.

Q36. How did the degeneration of the Mansabdari System contribute to the decline of the Mughals?

Ans: The Mansabdari System degenerated because the nobles tried to derive maximum revenue at the cost of the peasantry. The frequent transfer of the mansabdars led them to extract as much as possible during their tenure. It led to further impoverishment of the peasantry. The peasants, as a result, sometimes left their lands to escape from the tyranny of the mansabdars. Consequently, agriculture suffered. Hence economy deteriorated. This contributed to the decline of the Mughals.

Q37. When was the Ibadat Khana constructed? What was its function?

Ans: The Ibadat Khana or the House of worship was constructed in AD 1575. It functioned as the debating hall for scholars, initially only for learned Muslims but later on, under Akbar it was open to scholars of Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Jainism and Christianity.

Q38. What was the Din-i-Ilahi?

Ans: Akbar issued the ‘Infallible Decree’ by which, he became the spiritual as well as the political head of the State. This decree made him the interpreter of law. It alienated the orthodox Muslims. Then he promulgated Din-i-llahi in AD 1582. Din-i-llahi was to unite India into an organic whole by offering the people the best of all the religions.

Q39. Name two important painters who flourished under Shahjahan.

Ans: Kalyan Das and Anup Chitr were the two important painters who flourished under Shahjahan.

Q40. Name the leading musician who adorned the court of Akbar.

Ans: Miyan Tansen was a leading musician who adorned the court of Akbar.

Q41. Who was the reputed Persian poet patronized by Akbar?

Ans: Abul Faizi was the reputed Persian poet patronized by Akbar.

Q42. Name the work of Tulsidas.

Ans: Ramacharitmanas was written by Tulsidas.

Q43. Why is Surdas famous?

Ans: Surdas is famous for writing ‘Sur Sagar’ where he shows his love for Krishna.

Q44. What are the distinctive features of the Agra fort?

Ans: The distinctive features of the Agra fort are:

i. The plan of the fort forms an irregular semicircle. It was built with red sandstone.

ii. The fort is surrounded by a high wall of red sandstone. There is a water-filled moat round the fort.

iii. There are two gateways. The main gate to the west is called the Delhi Gate and the second one situated to the south is called the Amar Singh Gate. They are inlaid with white marble and coloured glazed tiles depicting designs of winged dragons, elephants and birds.

Q45. Name the authors of Ain-i-Akbari and Tabaqat-i-Akbari?

Ans: Abul Fazl and Nizam-ud-Din Ahmad are the authors of Ain-i-Akbari and Tabaqat-i- Akbari respectively.

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